Nearly 1.1 billion fewer people are living in extreme poverty than in 1990. In 2015, 736 million people lived on less than $1.90 a day, down from 1.85 billion in 1990. Of the 736 million people living in extreme poverty worldwide, half live in just five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, and Bangladesh. More

Most of the other SDGs below contribute to poverty reduction. Investments that target these five countries may deliver the most leverage, and can in some cases be paired with broader initiatives. India, for example has implemented a rural connectivity scheme (PMGSY) and a new tech-based infrastructure to get benefits to the poor directly (UID) which partner with private sector providers.


A third of the world's food is wasted, yet 821 million people are hungry. More

The concept of regenerative agriculture is gaining traction, and tech-based platforms such as the Regen Network track its progress. Learn more about how to rethink the way we grow, share and consume our food by reviewing how the world is realizing this goal. Read More from SDG Tracker  

Themes: Precision agriculture, technology-enabled monitoring for irrigation/fertilizer applications; packaging, food storage, and “ugly produce” solutions


The U.S. spends around $10,000 per person on health care, while Japan spends <40% of that sum -- and has a life expectancy that is 4 years longer. Health reaches across 22 SDG sub-goals. More

Themes: Drone-based drug and blood delivery, technology-enabled remote diagnostics and physician-leveraging solutions, telemedicine


56% of children of primary school age (387 million) lack minimum proficiency in reading. More

Themes: Technology-enabled, low-cost literacy and numeracy tools; remote/digital-learning platforms for all educational stages


Worldwide, women only make 77 cents for every dollar earned by men. In most regions, the gap is larger for women with children. More

Themes: Anti-bias software, digital anti-harassment/anti-assault training solutions


2.0 billion people still do not have basic sanitation facilities such as toilets or latrines. Of these, 673 million still defecate in the open, for example in street gutters, behind bushes or into open bodies of water. More

Themes: Monitoring and analytics, microbe-based (lower-cost) wastewater treatment, desalination


Energy produces around 60% of greenhouse gases and is the main contributor to climate change. More

Themes: Renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal and hydro power), especially in off-grid/distributed applications


In 2019, the global unemployment rate dropped to 5%, the lowest level since the 2008 economic crisis. Yet a majority of the 3.3 billion people employed throughout the world, though, are working under poor conditions that do not guarantee them a decent living. More


By 2040, the global population will grow by almost 2 billion people – a 25% increase. Rural to urban migration will continue with the urban population growing by 46%, catalyzing enormous demand for infrastructure support. All told, $97 trillion will need to be spent on infrastructure over the next 20 years, yet we are track for a $18 trillion shortfall. Closing the gap and meeting the SDGs will require spending as a proportion of global GDP to grow from the current level of 3% to 3.7%. More


Global wealth summed to $317tn in 2018. Around 0.8% (42m people) of the world's population control 45% ($142tn) of the world's wealth. 64% (3.2bn people) control 2% ($6.2tn). More


55% of the world population (4.2bn people) live in cities today. By 2050, that will grow to 66% (6.5bn). Cities occupy just 3 percent of the Earth’s land but account for 60 to 80 percent of energy consumption. More

This SDG is the largest single investable area, and affects the largest number of people. Citi estimates the “financial opportunity” to be $2.1tn and the “human opportunity” to be 4bn people. According to the Toniic network, “SDG 11—sustainable cities and communities—is the top target of the portfolios, attracting nearly a third (29%) of all SDG investments—making it even more of a focus than affordable and clean energy, SDG 7 (17%).” – Read more

Themes: Low-cost/affordable housing; efficiency-oriented housing materials and technology; efficiency-enhancing B2B services providers (e.g., building performance management, monitoring and consulting for customers of utilities)


Material Footprint (MF) is the attribution of global material extraction to domestic final demand of a country.The total material footprint is the sum of the material footprint for biomass, fossil fuels, metal ores and non-metal ores. Global MF is growing faster than population growth and economic growth, and high-income countries currently have an MF of 27 metric tonnes per capita (vs 2 tonnes in low-income countries). At the same time, relative to developing countries, they consume one-fifth of the natural resources per unit of economic output. More

Themes: E-waste/heavy metal mitigation and recycling; technology enabled recycling monitoring and compliance


Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels reached 407.4 parts per million (ppm) in 2018. In the 800,000 years up to 1950, the level had never risen above 300ppm. Global emissions of CO2 have increased by nearly 50% since 1990. More

Themes: Energy-efficiency (nearly-zero energy buildings) improved transportation infrastructure


300 million tonnes of plastic are produced each year. Half of it is designed to be used only once, and 60% of the 8.3bn tonnes of plastic produced since 1950 is in landfill or the natural environment. Around 8 million tonnes of plastic enter the oceans every year. More

Themes: Non-plastic/biodegradable packaging; plastic collection and recycling technology


2.6 billion people depend directly on agriculture for their livelihoods, and nature-based solutions could contribute about a third of CO2 reductions by 2030. More

Themes: Precision reforestation; soil, irrigation analytics and monitoring


131 million people are born each year, and 55 million people die. Half of new babies are not registered (making people legally "invisible"), and two-thirds of all deaths are not recorded (without cause-of-death data, good public policy hard to design). Illicit financial flows (corruption, bribery, tax evasion) are estimated to cost developing countries $1.25tn per year. More

Themes: Distributed ledger/other software solutions; financial flows monitoring


In sub-Saharan Africa, less than a quarter of national statistical plans are fully funded, and official development assistance stood at $146.6  billion in 2017. This represents a decrease of 0.6 per cent in real terms over 2016. More than four billion people do not use the internet. More

Themes: Low-cost data collection and management solutions; Low-cost connectivity solutions


Read more from the UN Secretary General’s Roadmap for Financing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 2019-2021

Nearly 1.1 billion fewer people are living in extreme poverty than in 1990. In 2015, 736 million people lived on less than $1.90 a day, down from 1.85 billion in 1990. Of the 736 million people living in extreme poverty worldwide, half live in just five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, and Bangladesh. More

Most of the other SDGs below contribute to poverty reduction. Investments that target these five countries may deliver the most leverage, and can in some cases be paired with broader initiatives. India, for example has implemented a rural connectivity scheme (PMGSY) and a new tech-based infrastructure to get benefits to the poor directly (UID) which partner with private sector providers.


A third of the world's food is wasted, yet 821 million people are hungry. More

The concept of regenerative agriculture is gaining traction, and tech-based platforms such as the Regen Network track its progress. Learn more about how to rethink the way we grow, share and consume our food by reviewing how the world is realizing this goal. Read More from SDG Tracker  

Themes: Precision agriculture, technology-enabled monitoring for irrigation/fertilizer applications; packaging, food storage, and “ugly produce” solutions


The U.S. spends around $10,000 per person on health care, while Japan spends <40% of that sum -- and has a life expectancy that is 4 years longer. Health reaches across 22 SDG sub-goals. More

Themes: Drone-based drug and blood delivery, technology-enabled remote diagnostics and physician-leveraging solutions, telemedicine


56% of children of primary school age (387 million) lack minimum proficiency in reading. More

Themes: Technology-enabled, low-cost literacy and numeracy tools; remote/digital-learning platforms for all educational stages


Worldwide, women only make 77 cents for every dollar earned by men. In most regions, the gap is larger for women with children. More

Themes: Anti-bias software, digital anti-harassment/anti-assault training solutions


2.0 billion people still do not have basic sanitation facilities such as toilets or latrines. Of these, 673 million still defecate in the open, for example in street gutters, behind bushes or into open bodies of water. More

Themes: Monitoring and analytics, microbe-based (lower-cost) wastewater treatment, desalination


Energy produces around 60% of greenhouse gases and is the main contributor to climate change. More

Themes: Renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal and hydro power), especially in off-grid/distributed applications


In 2019, the global unemployment rate dropped to 5%, the lowest level since the 2008 economic crisis. Yet a majority of the 3.3 billion people employed throughout the world, though, are working under poor conditions that do not guarantee them a decent living. More


By 2040, the global population will grow by almost 2 billion people – a 25% increase. Rural to urban migration will continue with the urban population growing by 46%, catalyzing enormous demand for infrastructure support. All told, $97 trillion will need to be spent on infrastructure over the next 20 years, yet we are track for a $18 trillion shortfall. Closing the gap and meeting the SDGs will require spending as a proportion of global GDP to grow from the current level of 3% to 3.7%. More


Global wealth summed to $317tn in 2018. Around 0.8% (42m people) of the world's population control 45% ($142tn) of the world's wealth. 64% (3.2bn people) control 2% ($6.2tn). More


55% of the world population (4.2bn people) live in cities today. By 2050, that will grow to 66% (6.5bn). Cities occupy just 3 percent of the Earth’s land but account for 60 to 80 percent of energy consumption. More

This SDG is the largest single investable area, and affects the largest number of people. Citi estimates the “financial opportunity” to be $2.1tn and the “human opportunity” to be 4bn people. According to the Toniic network, “SDG 11—sustainable cities and communities—is the top target of the portfolios, attracting nearly a third (29%) of all SDG investments—making it even more of a focus than affordable and clean energy, SDG 7 (17%).” – Read more

Themes: Low-cost/affordable housing; efficiency-oriented housing materials and technology; efficiency-enhancing B2B services providers (e.g., building performance management, monitoring and consulting for customers of utilities)


Material Footprint (MF) is the attribution of global material extraction to domestic final demand of a country.The total material footprint is the sum of the material footprint for biomass, fossil fuels, metal ores and non-metal ores. Global MF is growing faster than population growth and economic growth, and high-income countries currently have an MF of 27 metric tonnes per capita (vs 2 tonnes in low-income countries). At the same time, relative to developing countries, they consume one-fifth of the natural resources per unit of economic output. More

Themes: E-waste/heavy metal mitigation and recycling; technology enabled recycling monitoring and compliance


Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels reached 407.4 parts per million (ppm) in 2018. In the 800,000 years up to 1950, the level had never risen above 300ppm. Global emissions of CO2 have increased by nearly 50% since 1990. More

Themes: Energy-efficiency (nearly-zero energy buildings) improved transportation infrastructure


300 million tonnes of plastic are produced each year. Half of it is designed to be used only once, and 60% of the 8.3bn tonnes of plastic produced since 1950 is in landfill or the natural environment. Around 8 million tonnes of plastic enter the oceans every year. More

Themes: Non-plastic/biodegradable packaging; plastic collection and recycling technology


2.6 billion people depend directly on agriculture for their livelihoods, and nature-based solutions could contribute about a third of CO2 reductions by 2030. More

Themes: Precision reforestation; soil, irrigation analytics and monitoring


131 million people are born each year, and 55 million people die. Half of new babies are not registered (making people legally "invisible"), and two-thirds of all deaths are not recorded (without cause-of-death data, good public policy hard to design). Illicit financial flows (corruption, bribery, tax evasion) are estimated to cost developing countries $1.25tn per year. More

Themes: Distributed ledger/other software solutions; financial flows monitoring


In sub-Saharan Africa, less than a quarter of national statistical plans are fully funded, and official development assistance stood at $146.6  billion in 2017. This represents a decrease of 0.6 per cent in real terms over 2016. More than four billion people do not use the internet. More

Themes: Low-cost data collection and management solutions; Low-cost connectivity solutions


Read more from the UN Secretary General’s Roadmap for Financing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 2019-2021